Edwardian fashion refers to the clothing that was in style between the late 1890s and 1914 or the beginning of the Great War (World War I). Also called La Belle Epoque (the Beautiful Era), and the Gilded Age, this was a time when women's fashions took on a new opulence and extravagance, inspired by the hedonistic lifestyle of Britain's King Edward VII.
The design trends of the Edwardian era revolved around the S curve when corsets created an S shaped female silhouette, a change from the Victorian hourglass figure.
The S bend corset forced the hips back and bust forward. The ideal female figure was a mature woman with a pigeon shaped monobosom.
King Edward VII
After the death of the highly influential Queen Victoria in 1901, her son Edward rose to the throne. Edward VII had, until recently, the distinction of being the longest serving Prince of Wales (59 years) and spent much of his attention on his lavish life style. Edward is rumored to have had 55 love affairs, including romantic liaisons with famous actresses Lillie Langtry and Sarah Bernhardt.
The British royal family were the trendsetters of the day. British high society reigned as the cultural elite and Edward's extravagance ruled fashion and set the tone for behavior and fashion. Middle class women looked up to the elite for inspiration and hoped to emulate their 'betters.'
"Nothing succeeds like excess." - Oscar Wilde
The Influence of the Industrial Revolution on Ladies' Fashion
By the late 1890s, the Industrial Revolution had created new technologies that changed the way people lived. The growth of factories spawned a large middle class as large corporations generated new wealth and an upwardly mobile middle class.
Sewing machines enabled the production of ready made clothing and made it easier for women to sew their own clothes.
An increased literacy in the new middle class gave women access to information.
The inventions of the typewriter, telephone, and telegraph offered women increased employment opportunities when previously, women's jobs were restricted to domestic servitude or factory work.
Despite the fact that a large majority of working women labored long hours for low pay in dimly lit, poorly ventilated factories and mills, a new kind of women was beginning to emerge. The new women of the early 1900s was educated and informed, with an interest in politics and social causes.
The opposing concepts of an educated middle class woman who was active and outgoing contrasted with the urge toward luxury and hedonism to create the culture we call Edwardian.
Edwardian Fashion Icons
All fashion eras have their archetypes. Edwardian trendsetters included the Gibson Girl and Alice Roosevelt Longworth.
The Gibson Girl was a fictitious, unnamed character portrayed in the illustrations of Charles Dana Gibson who created what would become the feminine ideal for 20 years.
The Gibson Girl was shown as youthful and strong, fun loving, yet sophisticated. She was tall and slender with a long neck, ample bust and hips, and a small waist. Her upswept bouffant hairdo was all the rage and her aristocratic bearing inspired young women everywhere. The Gibson Girl was smart and independent, charming, and intelligent but was never shown to be political or interested in social causes.
The Gibson Girl became a merchandising bonanza. Her face and form were depicted on trays, on prints, pillow cases, souvenirs, and ashtrays.
Alice Roosevelt Longworth, the eldest daughter of Theodore Roosevelt was a high profile society figure in the USA. Beautiful and outspoken, Alice rode in cars with men, smoked, and kept a pet snake. The song 'Alice Blue Gown,' referred to the popular shade called Alice Blue named after her eyes - light blue with a hint of gray.
Her father, the President of the United States once said, "Either I can run the country or tend to Alice but I can't possibly do both."
Alice Roosevelt Longworth | Source
Edwardian Golfing Costume with Tailored Jacket | Source
A New Century - New Fashion Trends in Skirts and Dresses
As the century changed so changed clothing design trends. Gone was the bustle (a pad at the rear end) and heavy fabrics.of the previous century. A new, lighthearted concept overtook women's fashions along with a sentiment of eternal summer with dresses made of light weight fabrics for a more active lifestyle.
The 2 pieces dress came into vogue. Skirts hung tight at the hips and flared at the hem, creating a trumpet or lily-like shape.
Skirts in 1901 had decorated hems with ruffles of fabric and lace.
Some dresses and skirts featured trains.
Tailored jackets, first introduced in 1880, increased in popularity and by 1900 tailored suits became hugely popular.
By 1904 skirts became fuller and less clingy.
In 1905 skirts fell in soft folds that curved in, then flared out near the hemlines.
From 1905 - 1907 waistlines rose.
In 1910 the hobble skirt was introduced; a tight fitting skirt that restricted a woman's stride.
Lingerie dresses, or tea gowns made of soft fabrics, festooned with ruffles and lace were worn indoors.
Edwardian Blouses and Bodices
The blouses and bodices of the Edwardian period were embellished with pieces of lace and bead work, and lines of ruffles.
In the late 1890s, bodices were bloused with a pouched effect. Corsets gave women a monobosom - the corset did not divide the bust but rendered a pigeon-like look.
By 1904 blousing spread to the sides of the bodice.
Blouses, or bodices, featured high necks in light fabrics or lace.
Evening wear bodices showed more skin with sweet heart, round, or square necklines.
Early Edwardian sleeves fit tightly at the top of the arm, filled toward the lower end and gathered into a tight cuff.
1900 - 1905 Edwardian fashion trended toward open end pagoda sleeves.
By 1905 fullness at the wrist was gone and sleeves were wide and full at the top.
Sleeves stayed full at the top through 1909. They narrowed below the elbow and fit snuggly at the wrist in a style often called Leg of Muttun.
In 1910 the kimono sleeve was open, loose, and comfortable.
Big Hats - Queen Mary and Ladies
This photograph was taken in 1911 | Source
Edwardian Shoes, Boots, and Hats
SHOES AND BOOTS
The lace-up boots of the late 1800s continued on into Edwardian footwear.
Better shoes and boots were made of sealskin and were thin, durable, and nearly waterproof. Expensive sealskin was thin, comfortable, and insulating for both hot and cold weather.
Lesser priced shoes and boots made of tooled Moroccan leather were stiff, hot, and heavy.
Kid boots and shoes were a lesser quality footwear that did not maintain their shape.
The Great War created a leather shortage and saw the introduction of cloth topped shoes and boots, functional footwear that appeared mostly in black.
Wide brimmed hats were trimmed in feathers that often extended beyond the hat brim. By 1911, smaller hats still used a lot of feathers taken from the breeding plumage of wading birds created in factories called Plumassiers.
When the Audubon Society informed the public of the dire threat to the American bird population and the decline of wading birds due to the heavy demand for feathers, women responded in shock. Commerce in feathers ceased abruptly, leaving warehouses full of feathers. Some of these factories and warehouses caught fire and burned when unscrupulous businessmen sought to recoup loses through insurance.
Grande Duchess Tatiana circa 1911 Romanov Collection, General Collection, Beinecke Rare Book and Manuscript Library, Yale University | Source
This 1908 illustration by Paul Iribe is from :a Coutoriere Parisienne | Source
Influential Edwardian Fashion Designer Paul Poiret
Ladies' Edwardian fashion was greatly influenced by the designer Paul Poiret, known as the creator of modern clothing shapes and designs. His clothing designs were inspired by art including classicism, Orientalism, and Art Nouveau. Poiret's comfortable styles freed women from the constriction of corsets and relied on draping for effect.
In 1908, he introduced the straight tube sheath dress. Women abandoned the S corset for longer, straighter corsets and bras. His Oriental style became popular after the Ballet Russes performed Scheherazade in Paris in 1910. Fashion concepts included exotic designs based on harem wear in bright colors with beaded embellishment. The lampshade tunic came into vogue toward the end of Edwardian times as did the Directoire style of 1912 (as pictured at the top of this article) which featured a high waist that accentuated a long, slim figure.
Turbans and jeweled slippers were a feature of Orientalism and a new exotic style of dress for Edwardian women.
But, the Great War (World War I)put an end to extravagant trends as the world turned to a war economy with shortages of fabric and leather, and the more austere fashions usually dictated by the privations of war.
For Further Reading:
Edwardian Fashion by Daniel Milford-Cottam
Edwardian England A Guide to Everyday Life 1900 - 1914 by Evangeline Holland
Edwardian Fashion by Pauline Stephenson
The House of Worth: Portrait of An Archive 1890 - 1914 by Amy De La Haye and Victoria D. Mendes